8GHZ Radar
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NextGen 8 GHz Pulse Radar - Data Sheet



SkyRadar's 8 GHz Pulse radar emits in the X-band, the band used by ATC Area Control Radars, but also by the military and the marine. The transmitter can emit very short pulses through the antenna and monitor the reflected pulses. The pulses are reflected of fixed and moving objects. 
The signals are digitally processed using a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), data is visualized through the analysis and visualization software SkyRadar FreeScopes. With a range resolution better than 10 cm and a pulse width of 0.5 nsec it is the most accurate training pulse radar in the market. The number of concurrent users practicing independently is not limited.

General Features

  • Active radar, designed for perfectly save indoors and outside operation (transmitter output power significantly lower as such of a mobile phone.
  • Includes a horn antenna with adjustable inclination and one parabolic reflector where the inclination can be adjusted as well.
  • The following operating modes can be technically enabled in the hardware
    • Pulse Radar
    • Doppler Radar
  • Antenna hardwired on the transceiver card
    • Default operation 8 GHz
    • Parabolic reflector can be added to focus the antenna beam
  • Powerful and fast radar image processor.
  • All measurements are performed in real time. No sub‐sampling or substitution techniques.

Possible Exercises

The following subjects can be trained with the system, depending on the included FreeScopes Packages:

  • Experiments on Pulse and Emission Power
  • Experiments on A-Scope, B-Scope and Plan-Position-Indicator (PPI)
  • Calibrating a radar using amplification, filters and settings
  • Experiments in a fixed position as well as through panning and rotation (rotary tripod required)
  • Doppler Effect
  • Fast Fourier Signal Transformation (FFT) and its effects.
  • Clutter processing e.g., through Sensitive Time Control (STC), Threshold limitation or C-FAR
  • Radar Cross Section (RCS) analysis allowing for an understanding of the varying detectability of objects based on material, absolute and relative size, reflection angle, distance and strength of the signal.
  • Allows analyzing performance and false alarm tolerances through adjustment of the sensitivity.
  • Adjustable decision threshold allowing for experiments on background noise.
  • Moving Target Indication for clutter elimination
  • Machine Learning (Artificial Intelligence) for image interpretation
  • And much more.

Modular Solution


The system can be supplied in a package with several extensions of FreeScopes or it can be extended progressively.

Hereafter we introduce the modules for virtual control centers:

  • FreeScopes Basic I
  • FreeScopes Basic II
  • FreeScopes ATC

All Data can be transferred in real-time to a numerical analytics environment like MATLAB with SkyRadar's freely available programming interface (read more).

The system can be extended with various elements like
Rotary Tripod, CloudServer, Synthetic Aperture Radar and more.

Look at our suggested reference configurations such as 

We also suggest package-priced solutions.


NextGen 8 GHz FreeScopes Basic I

The system comes in its basic configuration with
NextGen 8 GHz FreeScopes Basic I.

The users are enabled to do manipulations independently on their computers. Free floating panels of the FreeScopes Control Center allow each student to set up his own signal conversion chain, analyzing raw data, data after FFT, STC etc. 

It is a basic configuration of a Virtual Radar Control Center, allowing  for control and visualization of the  8 GHz pulse radar

The principles of Radar Systems can be trained.

The data can be visualized through included virtual instruments:

  • A-Scopes
  • B-Scopes
  • PPI

The Control Center reads out I and Q data, from SkyRadar's 8 GHz NextGen Pulse Radar.

It includes several controls such as

  • Tx Power Control
  • FFT
  • Static Threshold
  • STC
  • Contrast

The users are enabled to independently run experiments on their computers. 

Thanks to a high resolution dual channel sampler, FreeScopes allows to analyze the I and Q data independently and in an integrated version. This performance exceeds the performance of any other existing radar training system worldwide.






Spectro-Analysis-skyradar  24-ghz-psr-nextgen-8ghz-pulse-training-exercise-manual-04


NextGen 8 GHz FreeScopes Basic II

We also suggest to use the FreeScopes Extension Basic II

The Module provides a set of features including:

  • MTI (Moving Target Indication)
  • C-FAR
  • RCS
  • Windows Functions ( Hann, Hamming, Blackman and more) 
  • Spectrogram


NextGen FreeScopes ATC

This module is mandatory for ATCO and ATSEP students.Tracks-Plots-in-FreeScopes-explanation

The FreeScopes ATC Module provides a set of features including:

  • Radar Plots
  • Radar Tracks
  • Enhanced MTI
  • Moving Target Detection (MTD) 
  • The visualization is done in compliance to the standards of ICAO and EUROCONTOL.

It makes the step from the theoretic understanding of the radar image to typical conventions on how target plots and tracks are displayed.

The included features are a landmark in practical radar training as they are missing in most of the training radars available in the market. But being qualified on plots and tracks is mandatory for ICAO 10057 oriented qualification.



More FreeScopes Modules

  • NextGen Artificial Intelligence I including AI Solutions for image and pattern recognition 
  • Next Gen 8 GHz Beam Controller allowing to practice beam forming (in preparation)
  • NextGen Pulse Manipulation allowing for changes of pulse width, pulse compression (simulated within the FreeScopes software on the real signals, in preparation, expected end 2020).

System Features

Overview of the key technical features:

  • Range Resolution: better than 10 cm

  • Range: up to 25 m

  • Tx center frequency (ETSI): 7.29 GHz

  • Tx bandwidth (ETSI): 1.4 GHz

  • Pulse Width: 0.5 nsec

  • Peak Pulse output power (ETSI): -0.7 - 6.3 dBm

  • Tx output power is variable (low, medium, high)

  • Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is variable

  • Max pulse repetition frequency. 90 Hz

  • Rx sampling rate: 23.3 GS/s

  • Rx gain (ETSI): 12.3 - 15 dB

  • Rx noise figure (ETSI): 5.4 - 8.8 dB

  • Elevation: 68°

  • Azimuth: 68°

  • Update rate (signal processing)  > 100 frames per second (fps)

Power Requirements 

12V, 5V

Maximum Range

up to 25 m

Maximum Sampling Rate Rx

23.3 GS/s


140 mm x 143mm x 200 mm; 

Net Weight

below 5 kg


Supply Current 100 mA
Operating Ambient Temperature + 10 … + 40 °C

Table: General operative characteristics of the Transceiver

Parameter Min Typ Max
Transmitter Center Frequency (ETSI / KCC)   7.29 GHz / 8.748 GHz  
Transmitter Bandwidth (ETSI / KCC)   1.4 GHz / 1.5 GHz  
Energy per Pulse (ETSI) 0.45 pJ 1.47 pJ 2.6 pJ
Peak Pulse Output Power (ETSI) - 0.7 dBm 4.1 dBm 6.3 dBm
Pulse Repetition Frequency     40.5 MHz
Differential Output Impedance   100 Ohm  

Table : Operative characteristics of the Transmitter (subsection of the Transceiver)

Parameter Min Typ Max
Radar Frame Length   9.87 m / 65.8 ns  
Sampling Rate   23.328 GS/s  
Receiver Gain (ETSI) 12.3 dB 14.1 dB 15.0 dB
Receiver Noise Figure (ETSI) 5.4 dB 6.8 dB 8.8 dB
Receiver Bandwidth (- 3 dB), Flow 6.13 GHz 6.5 GHz  
Receiver Bandwidth (- 3 dB), Fhigh   10.0 GHz 10.76 GHz
Differential Input Impedance   100 Ohm

Table : Operative characteristics of the Receiver (subsection of the Transceiver)

Antenna Features (including the standard Parabolic Reflector)



Antenna Gain


Beam width (at -3dB)

Table : Operative characteristics of the antenna including the parabolic reflector

SkyRadar produces products to train the civil use of radar equipment. We actively take that mission to makes this world a better and safer place. We do not provide goods which are in conflict of the dual use regulation (unless with specific written consent of the European Regulation Bodies and if the purpose is a peaceful one). SkyRadar has received a general export permit 40066564 dated 22.08.2011.

SkyRadar emphasizes that the COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 428/2009 and its amendments are the only authentic legal reference and that the information in this document does not constitute legal advice.

According Paragraph 6A008, goods are subject to the above stated Regulation, when they comply to the following criteria: 


Explanation why SkyRadar does not comply to these criteria

a. Operating at frequencies from 40 GHz to 230 GHz and having any of the following: ...

The system operates at 24 GHz and operates with max 1.8 mW far below the critical threshold

b. A tunable bandwidth exceeding ± 6,25 % of the 'centre operating frequency'

The bandwidth is below 1% of the centre operating frequency

c. Capable of operating simultaneously on more than two carrier frequencies

The system operates with one carrier frequency

d. Capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), inverse synthetic aperture (ISAR) radar mode, or sidelooking airborne (SLAR) radar mode

The base module itself does not include SAR,  iSAR or SLAR features.

e. Incorporating electronically scanned array antennae

The system does not work with electronically scanned array antennae. It operates either with 2 horn antennae.

The dual use regulation, in particular paragraph 6A008 does not control "Displays or monitors used for air traffic control (ATC)", as done by SkyRadar FreeScopes.

Section l.1 of paragraph 6A008 addresses "Automatic target tracking" providing, at any antenna rotation, the predicted target position beyond the time of the next antenna beam passage. This paragraph however does not "control conflict alert capability in ATC systems". Only that is done by the SkyRadar FreeScopes software. Target tracking in terms of trajectory projection, as done by military systems is explicitly excluded and not part of the system.

Paragraph 6A108 concerns Radar systems and tracking systems, other than those specified in entry 6A008. It covers Radar and laser radar systems designed or modified for use in space launch vehicles specified in 9A004 or sounding rockets specified in 9A104. This is not applicable to the SkyRadar training equipment.