The RGPO Detection Block is an essential component of a radar system designed to detect and handle range deception data. 

The following block diagram describes the RGPO Detection Block. This block includes several subfunctions, each serving a specific purpose in the processing of incoming radar reflections to identify and manage potential range-deceived targets.

Block Diagram SkyRadar RGPO Infographics


1. Automatic Threshold

Description: The Automatic Threshold subfunction is an integral part of the RGPO Detection Block. Its primary purpose is to establish a suitable detection threshold for incoming radar reflections, ensuring that targets with high Radar Cross-Section (RCS) are not missed.

Function: During the first iteration, this subfunction identifies the maximum value within the radar data. Based on this maximum value, it calculates a threshold that is ten times this maximum. The high threshold setting accounts for the expectation that range deception often results in the introduction of targets with significantly elevated RCS values.

Use: The threshold calculated by this subfunction is applied to incoming radar reflections, allowing the system to classify potential targets based on their intensity compared to the established threshold.

2. Associate Radar Reflections into Objects

Description: The Associate Radar Reflections into Objects subfunction is responsible for creating coherent objects from radar reflections. It is designed to group reflections originating from a single target based on specific characteristics such as distance and angle.

Function: This subfunction performs reflection association by analysing the spatial and temporal characteristics of radar reflections. When it detects reflections originating from the same target, it groups them into a coherent object. This process allows for more effective tracking and analysis of individual targets.
Use: The objects created by this subfunction serve as a foundation for the tracking and monitoring of targets, enhancing the radar system's ability to distinguish individual targets within the radar data.

3. Store Information for the First Three Rotations

Description: The Store Information for the First Three Rotations subfunction maintains and records target information over three consecutive rotations of radar data. It is a critical component for detecting range deception and tracking real targets.

Function: This subfunction records target information from the real target during the first rotation, followed by target information from two additional rotations. The latter two rotations contain data from range-deceived targets, with their distances intentionally shifted or altered.

Use: The stored information is crucial for detecting range deception, as differences between the real target and range-deceived targets can be identified and analysed, serving as a basis for potential deception detection.

4. Detect If Deception Is Active

Description: The Detect If Deception Is Active subfunction is designed to identify active range deception attempts. It relies on a comparison of the gradients between target information from the first and second rotations, as well as the second and third rotations.
Function: This subfunction calculates the gradients in distance, velocity, and angle information between the consecutive rotations. It then compares these gradients to expected values based on the real target's characteristics. If the calculated gradients fall outside the expected range, it indicates that active deception may be occurring.
Use: The primary use of this subfunction is to identify potential range deception attempts, allowing the system to take appropriate countermeasures and maintain the integrity of target tracking.

5. Estimate and Track the Real Position

Description: The Estimate and Track the Real Position subfunction focuses on estimating and continuously tracking the real position of a target. This is critical when range deception is suspected, and accurate target tracking is essential.

Function: Leveraging the gradients, distance, velocity, and angle information, this subfunction calculates the position update for the real target, distinct from the range-deceived targets. By continuously estimating and tracking the real target's position, the radar system can maintain a reliable assessment of the true threat.

Use: The real position estimation enables the system to differentiate between real targets and range-deceived targets, ensuring that the system's response and tracking remain effective and accurate even in the presence of deception attempts.

The Video describing the RGPO Detection Block

The RGPO (Range Deception Data Processing) Detection Block is a sophisticated and crucial component of a radar system, designed to handle and mitigate the challenges posed by range deception in radar data. It incorporates a series of well-defined subfunctions, each with a specific role and function in the overall process.

In summary, the RGPO Detection Block serves as the front line of defence against potential range-deception threats and ensures that genuine targets are accurately tracked and monitored.

Here's an in-depth overview of its significance:

  • Automatic Threshold establishes a rigorous thresholding mechanism based on the maximum value detected within the radar data. By applying a tenfold threshold, it accounts for potential targets with elevated Radar Cross-Section (RCS) values, a common characteristic of range-deceived targets.

  • Associate Radar Reflections into Objects plays a pivotal role in organizing radar reflections into coherent objects, enabling more effective target tracking and analysis. By grouping reflections from the same target, it facilitates the ability to distinguish between individual targets and range-deceived reflections.

  • Store Information for the First Three Rotations records and stores target information over three consecutive rotations of radar data. This information is essential for detecting range deception attempts by enabling the identification of discrepancies between real targets and range-deceived targets.

  • Detect If Deception Is Active actively monitors the gradients between consecutive rotations' target information. By comparing these gradients to expected values based on the real target, this subfunction can identify active range deception. It is a critical safeguard for maintaining the integrity of target tracking.

  • Estimate and Track the Real Position is responsible for continuously estimating and tracking the real position of a target, even in the presence of deception attempts. By differentiating real targets from range-deceived targets, it ensures the system's ability to accurately assess genuine threats.


In conclusion, the RGPO Detection Block is a fundamental asset in the arsenal of radar systems, especially in scenarios where range deception poses a substantial threat. By implementing this block and its associated subfunctions, the radar system can efficiently process radar data, differentiate between real and deceptive targets, and maintain accurate and reliable tracking of genuine threats. This capability is essential for enhancing the overall security and functionality of radar systems in a wide range of applications, including defence and surveillance.

Many Applications for Electronic Warfare

Follow our blogs and videos on Electronic Warfare with SkyRadar's Disturbance Filtering & Analysis solutions, the jammers and the Pulse Radar! SkyRadar is the only provider world-wide, providing manufacturer-agnostic ECM and ECCM training with simulators and real radars and jammers. Learn more about the simulator, range deception, angle deception, speed deception, radar lock on and major state of the art defense algorithms against malicious attacks.

Such defense is not only useful in a military context but also in a civil aviation setting. Increasingly speed radar jammers by trucks and cars disturb airport infrastructure. Also hybrid warfare is used to perturb critical infrastructure like airports and civil air surveillance and navigation services.

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