PSR Base

Part #: SkyRadar PSR-Base-Ver.4.1 Get a PDF version of this webpagePDF

The module is part of SkyRadar’s Radar Training System. It provides a fully operational Constant Wave radar for civil, naval and military oriented radar training. SkyRadar PSR allows for experiments from basic working principles like the radar equation to most complex radar scenarios, working on pulsed-based radar hardware in the modes Frequency Modulated Constant Wave, Doppler and Frequency Shift Keying (FSK).

SkyRadar PSR Base Module
SkyRadar PSR Base Module

The PSR Module consists of:

  • One (1) motorized, rotatory unit (accommodating transceiver and signal processing unit) with plug-in socket for various antenna types (Picture, No.1)
  • Two (2) Horn antennae. Optionally the antennae can be replaced by other types (No.2)
  • One (1) reflector (No.3)
  • Four (4) feet (No.4)
  • One (1) Laptop for control and analysis including operating system and the processing analysis, visualization and recording software SkyRadar Navigator. The system is network enabled. An unlimited amount of additional computers can be optionally added to operate concurrently (No.5)
  • A set of cables (No.6)

At the heart of the system, the SkyRadar Laptop operates with a hardware-based Pulse Radar (picture similar). The transmitter can send very short pulses through the antenna into the environment and will monitor the reflected pulses. The pulses are reflected off fixed objects (buildings, trees…) and moving objects (cars, people…) which pass the antenna beam. SkyRadar PSR provides the opportunity to study MTI and Doppler effects.

The signals are digitally processed and recorded using a Digital Signal Processor, data is depicted on the Laptop.

Carrier Frequency

24 Ghz

24,125 GHz

24,250 Ghz

Transmitter Output Power:


-2 dBm

+2 dBm

Transmitter Output Power:

0,25 mW


1,58 mW*

Spectral Width

20 GHz

28 GHz

Spectral Density

-30 dBm

-30 dBm

-30 dBm

Frequency Drift vs Temperature

-0,3 Mhz / °C

-0,3 Mhz / °C

-0,3 Mhz / °C

Spurious emission

-30 dBm

-30 dBm

-30 dBm

Table: Operative characteristics of the Transmitter (subsection of the Transceiver)

Antenna Gain Horn Antenna without Parabolic Reflector

17 dBi


– 91 dBm

Overall Sensitivity

-106 dBc

Table : Operative characteristics of the Receiver (subsection of the Transceiver)

Range extension, factor





Carrier frequency

4 Ghz

3 Ghz

2 Ghz

1 GHz


3,75 cm

5, cm

7,5 cm

15 cm

at a distance of

10 m

13 m

19 m

40 m

range extension factor up to





Tracking rate

8 ms

8 ms

8 ms

8 ms

Table: Horn antenna without reflector

Changing the antenna
Changing the antenna

SkyRadar PSR Base Module Hardware Features

  • Active radar, designed for perfectly save indoors and outside operation (transmitter output power significantly lower as such of a mobile phone, see Table 4)
  • The following operating modes can be technically enabled in the hardware
    • Frequency Modulated Constant Wave (FMCW)
    • Doppler
    • Exploring FSK ranging (starting at 8 km target speed)
    • Antenna
      • Standard: Horn Antenna. Default operation in the k-Band.
      • With other antennas, other bands (x-band) are optionally available.
  • Antennae can be exchanged in plug-and play concept
  • Powerful and fast radar image processor with 1 GHz clock frequency
  • All measurements are performed in real time. No sub‐sampling or substitution techniques.
  • Optimized for detection of real targets in a 3-dimensional space within laboratories or outside. No limiting target table or rail system required.
  • Large variety of radar applications:
  • Clutter processing e.g., through Sensitive Time Control (STC),
  • Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) used for position and obstacle detection
  • Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) operation mode for high resolution distance measurements of moving objects, especially when used in outside experiments.
  • Radar Cross Section (RCS) analysis allowing for an understanding of the varying detectability of objects based on material, absolute and relative size, reflection angle, distance and strength of the signal.
  • Allows analyzing performance and false alarm tolerances through adjustment of the sensitivity.
  • Adjustable decision threshold allowing for experiments on background noise.
PSR Base Block Diagram
PSR Base Block Diagram
ScopeOverviews 283 x 169
SkyRadar Navigator Overview Scope

SkyRadar PSR Base Module Software Features

  • Wireless communication between Server and Radar element.
  • The PSR module includes the SkyRadar Navigator Software with the following scopes
    • A‐Scope.
    • B‐Scope.
    • Plan-Position-Indicator (PPI).
    • Possibility to run experiments from the verification of the radar equation up to complex radar experiments and analysis.
    • Analysis of the Pulse Train Frequency, which is directly measured at the gate generator.
    • Close‐Range detection.
    • Possible signal processing experiments (list non exhaustive)
      • Exploring FSK ranging.
      • Exploring Mono-pulse principles.
      • Measurement of I and Q signals.
      • Learning Doppler basics.
      • Exploring Doppler Sensors.
      • Working with the complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm.
      • Ranging of moving and stationary objects.
      • Detection of direction angle of moving objects.
      • Raw data recording for post processing and replay in offline mode.